Carbon dioxide is a by-product of a chemical conversion process used in the production of clinker, a component of cement, in which limestone (CaCO 3 ) is converted to lime (CaO) . Cumulative Global CO2 Emissions from Fossil Fuel Consumption and Cement Production. The availability of the required data for estimating emissions from global cement production is poor, and it has been recognised that some global estimates are significantly inflated. Cement is the second most-consumed resource in the world, with more than 4 billion tons of the material produced globally every year.

Emissions from cement production increased slightly and now account for 3% of total emissions. Cement production accounts for around 7% of total global industrial energyuse and about 7% of global emissions.

Climate experts expected global carbon emissions from fossil fuels and cement production to rise in 2020, from an estimated 36.8bn tonnes of carbon dioxide last year.

This resulted mainly from a sharp decline in CO 2 emissions from the power sector in advanced economies1, thanks to the expanding role of renewable sources (mainly wind and solar PV), fuel switching from coal to natural gas, and higher nuclear power output. LafargeHolcim, the second-largest maker by capacity, once launched a carbon-free product…

Global production of cement has grown very rapidly in recent years, and after fossil fuels and land-use change, it is the third-largest source of anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide. Globally, the primary sources of greenhouse gas emissions are electricity and heat (31%), agriculture (11%), transportation (15%), forestry (6%) and manufacturing (12%). Energy production of all types accounts for 72 percent of all emissions. Emissions from gas flaring declined 11% from 1991 to 1992 to 68 million metric tons C (just 1% of the global total), due largely to the end of the Iraq-Kuwait conflict, and remain well below the levels of the 1970s. This chart provides cumulative global fossil-fuel CO2 emissions from 1751 to 2003. Credit: T.A.
Global Manmade Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Gas, 2015.
Cement makers are responding but have found customers hesitant. Boden, DOE/Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

Source. Global energy-related CO 2 emissions flattened in 2019 at around 33 gigatonnes (Gt), following two years of increases.

Notes. Abstract. Climate Analysis Indicators Tool (World Resources Institute, 2017).

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